Ledenik Svaritsen, Norveška

Pozitivna energija na daljnem severu

Na severu Norveške se bo odprl prvi plus energijski hotel Svart. Oblikovali so ga v znamenitem arhitekturnem biroju Snøhetta v Oslu.

14.07.2020 Avtor: Bernd Zerelles  Fotografije: Plomp (Design: Snøhetta)

“We only create things that can become real in some form. The technology has to exist to make the concept feasible.”

Christian Bolognesi, Italdesign spokesman

The Pop.Up Next concept doesn’t herald a flying car per se, but a self-driving, self-flying, fully autonomous, electric-powered taxi. It’s designed to operate on a multi-mode principle. Two passengers sit in a capsule, which, for driving purposes, is attached to a four-wheel ground module that is also electric-powered and fully autonomous. For flight mode, the capsule is autonomously detached from the ground module, then attached to an eight-rotor air module or drone capable of vertical take-off.

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On board with Angus

“The aeronautical-inspired seatsfeature netting that adjusts to each passenger’s shape.”

Nicolas Bussetti, Designer, Italdesign

The concept certainly appears cool and suitably futuristic, both from outside and inside the ultra-minimalist cabin. My details and my ‘journey’ have already been pre-registered on an app on my smartphone and, as I settle into the seat, I’m recognised and welcomed aboard by PIA, my speaking Personal Intelligent Assistant. The seats certainly feel comfortable, and, currently, there’s sufficient space behind them to hold a couple of small bags, although it’s possible the flying taxi will be smaller in size when it reaches production. The ‘dashboard’ in front of me is one large screen that incorporates augmented-reality technology and enables me to highlight icons simply by moving my eyes


By pressing on a small touchpad mounted between the seats, I can then choose the ambient-lighting theme I desire, and the type of music I wish to listen to through the speakers built into the headrests. Naturally, there is plenty of glass area to provide occupants with a fine view as they soar over the city, although the floor below my feet is not transparent – and deliberately so, as Nicolas points out: ‘We wanted to create an open environment that enables passengers to enjoy the experience, but we also wanted to ensure they felt safe and weren’t frightened.’

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Prikaz 360 stopinj razgleda na kompasu in 15% na krogu

Lokacija

Stoji ob vznožju Svartisena, drugega največjega ledenika na Norveškem, ki pokriva okrožje Meløy v provinci Nordland. Na tej čarobni točki nad Severnim tečajnikom se srečajo gore, led in morje. Svartovo telo se v obliki prstana razteza od vznožja gore Almlifjellet v kristalno čisto vodo fjorda Holandsfjorden. Do stavbe v srcu neokrnjene narave je možno priti le po vodi. Hotel bo z najbližjim mestom Bodøm povezovala ogljično nevtralna ladjica.

Lokacija blizu severnega pola označena na črnem zemljevidu

»Pri arhitekturnem projektu v tako dragocenem naravnem okolju se moramo še posebej zavedati odgovornosti do prečudovitega živalskega in rastlinskega sveta. Naš cilj je bila zasnova trajnostne stavbe s čim manjšim ekološkim odtisom,« pravi Kjetil Trædal Thorsen, soustanovitelj biroja Snøhetta. »Gradnja energetsko pozitivnega hotela je ključni korak za vzpostavljanje trajnostnega turizma. Z oblikovno rešitvijo smo se poklonili lokalnim posebnostim: redkim rastlinskim vrstam, čisti vodi in temno modremu ledu, ki prekriva Svartisen.«

Ime hotela, Svart, v norveščini pomeni črn. Ime ledenika Svartisen pa pomeni Črni led.

One of the big problems we’ll have is acceptance.

Massimo Martinotti, head of mobility solutions, Italdesign

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The journey is the reward

The company has already conducted a flight in public, at Drone Week in Amsterdam last year – but using a 1:4 scale model. The flight module accurately placed a passenger capsule on the ground module, which then drove from the test grounds autonomously. This proved the effectiveness of the Airbus coupling system and its locking and latching functionality. The air module currently rests on legs to make docking easier, but it’s envisaged that such legs would not be required by the time the concept reaches production.

To make the project with full-sized versions viable, more powerful batteries than those that exist today would be required, and Airbus is currently working on developing such technology. Noise is another issue, and reduction of the high-pitched whirring familiar to anyone who has witnessed even a small drone in flight is being sought. Italdesign is working with Audi to develop battery and electric-motor technology for the ground module – an area in which Audi’s engineers have already proven highly competent, as the recent launch of the e-tron SUV testifies. Therefor an Audi engineer is also based with the Italdesign team in Italy.

Grafika hotela z temelji v vodi

Ideja

Svart bo porabil kar 85 % manj energije kot primerljivi hoteli moderne gradnje. S trajnostno samooskrbo jo bo proizvajal sam. Arhitekti Snøhetta so pred začetkom projektiranja natančno izmerili količino sončne svetlobe, ki ji je skozi vse leto izpostavljena lokacija na robu goratega fjorda in se na podlagi pridobljenih podatkov odločili za krožno zasnovo zgradbe.

Hotelske sobe, restavracije in terase so razporejene tako, da skozi vse leto optimalno izkoriščajo sončno energijo. Poleti, ko je sonce visoko na nebu, ogrodje zagotavlja senco, zato stavba ne potrebuje klimatskih naprav. V zimskih mesecih, ko je sonce nizko na nebu, pa ogromna okna prepuščajo veliko svetlobe in toplote, ki greje prostore.

Ogljični odtis še dodatno zmanjšujejo sončne celice, ki prekrivajo streho. Izdelane so na Norveškem z uporabo elektrike iz vodnih virov. Upravniki hotela računajo na to, da bodo med dolgimi poletnimi dnevi vsrkale dovolj sončnih žarkov za pokrivanje vseh potreb. Za ogrevanje izkoriščajo geotermalne vrelce, v katere so speljane toplotne črpalke. Kjer se je le dalo, so se izognili uporabi betona in jekla, ki sta energijsko izjemno potratna materiala. Namesto njiju so za ogrodje in oblogo uporabili les iz okoliških gozdov in tudi s tem zmanjšali okoljski odtis zgradbe.

Slika hotela v krogu, ki je zgrajen na vodi

Oblikovanje

Svartovo krožno konstrukcijo nekaj metrov pod gladino fjorda podpirajo vodoodporni leseni piloti, zaradi katerih dobimo občutek, da okolju prijazen hotel pluje na vodi. Arhitekti so navdih zanje našli v tradicionalnih ribiških kočah na kolih, ki se imenujejo rorbu, in sušilnicah rib, ki se imenujejo fiskehjell. Stebre med vodo in osrednjo stavbo povezuje lesen pomol, ki je dovolj visok, da pod njim lahko plujejo čolni in manjše ladjice, kar je idealno za ljubitelje vodnih športov.

Hotel, ki bo imel samo sto sob, bo dostopen gostom, obiskovalcem in lokalni skupnosti. En del bo namenjen tudi izobraževalnemu in oblikovalskemu studiu, v katerem bodo raziskovali nove načine varčevanja z energijo. V načrtu je tudi trajnostna kmetija za oskrbovanje štirih hotelskih restavracij s hiperlokalnimi živili. Svart naj bi se odprl leta 2023, trenutno pa je še prezgodaj za natančnejše napovedi.

Arhitekturni biro Snøhetta že več kot 30 let načrtuje svetovno znane javne in kulturne projekte. Mednarodno slavo so dosegli leta 1989, ko jim je bil zaupan projekt nove knjižnice v egiptovski Aleksandriji. Sledili so ji še drugi pomembni projekti, od Operne hiše v Oslu do spominskega paviljona žrtvam 9/11 na mestu nekdanjega Svetovnega trgovinskega centra v New Yorku. Snøhetta k vsakemu projektu pristopa večstransko – z arhitekturo, pa tudi krajinskim, notranjim, grafičnim in produktnim oblikovanjem. Oblikovali so celo nove norveške bankovce. Za aleksandrijsko knjižnico in oselsko operno hišo so dobili svetovno arhitekturno nagrado. Operna hiša je vse od svojega odprtja leta 2008 deležna kopice priznanj, kot so evropska nagrada za javni prostor, mednarodna arhitekturna nagrada in svetovna nagrada za trajnostno arhitekturo, 2016 pa je Wall Street Journal biro Snøhetta proglasil še za arhitekturne inovatorje leta.

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“It’ll take a while for the drones to arrive in great numbers – maybe by 2030.”

Massimo Martinotti, head of mobility solutions, Italdesign

So, let’s assume that the technology can be developed to make the flying taxi operate safely, all legislative issues can be successfully resolved, and the public is happy not only to travel in such a vehicle but also to live in a city with them flying overhead. How might it all work in practice, and by when might it happen? ‘It’ll take a while for the drones to arrive in great numbers – maybe by 2030,’ explains Massimo. ‘We estimate that there could be 200,000 to 300,000 of them in operation all over the world by then, and several thousand could be deployed in a city like London. We envisage that, to start with, they’d operate in strict air corridors only, perhaps flying from the airport and landing on a tower downtown. But, in the long term, it may be possible to open up the sky and give them more freedom.’


While the current model is being designed to have a short, cross-city range, Massimo surmises that, as technology advances, it may even be possible for longer journeys to be undertaken. Massimo however is convinced the flying taxi will become a reality and is clearly very much looking forward to taking a flight in it. ‘After all,’ he adds with a smile, ‘humankind has always had the dream of taking to the sky, right back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci and his flying machines.’

 

 

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